Compound-complex sentences

It is common that we limit ourselves to using the same sentence structures time and time again, perhaps out of habit, or other times out of a lack of knowledge.

One way to remedy unwanted repetition is by wwitching between independent and dependent clauses. Consciously varying your sentences will develop the way you express yourself.

These are known as compound and complex sentences.

Compund sentences

A compound sentence is a type of sentence that consists of two or more independent clauses (also known as main clauses) that are connected by a conjunction (such as "and," "but," "or," "so"), also abbreviated to FANBOYS (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so). Each independent clause in a compound sentence can stand alone as a complete sentence. The purpose of a compound sentence is to show a relationship between the ideas presented in each independent clause or by adding information.

Example of a compound sentence:

In this sentence, "She likes to swim" and "he enjoys playing tennis" are both independent clauses, and they are connected by the conjunction (FANBOYS) "and."

Complex sentences

A complex sentence is a sentence that contains one independent clause and at least one dependent clause. An independent clause is a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence, while a dependent clause is not a complete thought and relies on the independent clause for its meaning.

The dependent clause usually begins (but not always) subordinating conjunction. Common examples of subordinating conjunctions are after, although, as, because, before, despite, even, if, in case, since, though, unless, when, where, whereas, while. Complex sentences are used to express relationships between ideas, often indicating cause and effect or providing additional information. 

Example of a complex sentence:

In this sentence, "she decided to go for a walk" is the independent clause, and "Although it was raining" is the dependent clause, beginning with the subordinating conjunction "although".

Compund-complex sentences

A compound-complex sentence combines elements of both compound and complex sentences. It includes two or more independent clauses (like in a compound sentence) and at least one dependent clause (like in a complex sentence). 

Example of a compound-complex sentence:

In this sentence, "She went to the store" and "he stayed home to finish his work" are the independent clauses, and "because she needed groceries" is the dependent clause.

In summary:


Compund sentences

Connect two independent clauses using one of the FANBOYS

The frog leapt into the lake. The water rippled.

Complex sentences

Connect the independent and dependent clause.

I read after eating. I watch tv.

Compund-complex sentence

Connect at least two independent clauses with a dependent clause:

I like English. Because I watch English dramas on Netflix. But I have never visited England.

Although it was raining. Sarah decided to go for a run She invited her friend to join her.

After I finish my work. I'll meet you at the cafe. We can discuss the project.

She loves traveling to exotic places. She can't go on a vacation. Until she completes her exams.

While I was cooking dinner. The doorbell rang. I asked my roommate to answer it.

Because he studied diligently for the exam. John performed exceptionally well. He earned the highest grade in the class.

Although the concert tickets were expensive. Mary bought them. She's looking forward to the show.

When the sun sets. The temperature drops. It's time to light the campfire.

She is a talented musician. She plays the piano beautifully. She also enjoys singing in the choir.

Since he was feeling unwell. He decided to stay home and rest. His friends went to the party without him.

After we finish our hike. We'll have a picnic by the lake. Then we'll relax and enjoy the scenery.