Lesson POL-3

Welcome! Please consider how your attitude affects your and other students experience of the lesson.

Be respectful, come prepared with relevant material and show interest in order to have the best possible educational experience.

Learning outcomes

During the course of this lesson, you will learn:

  • Listen to and describe how to use rhetorically and grammatically empowered spoken English.

  • Choose and incorporate sources in your mock debate or negotiation.

Lesson outline

Previous lesson: Discourse markers and question tags

Essential exercise: listening comprehension

Detailed exercise: identifying figures of speech

Advanced exercise: Arnold Schwarzenegger's message

Exit ticket & Homework

Essential exercise

Listening comprehension

Time for the exercise: 15 minutes


Click each of the three links and follow the instructions to practice your listening comprehension. The exercises are self-assessing and you will see your results immediately. You do not need to share these with the rest of the class.

Detailed exercise

Identifying figures of speech

Time for the exercise: 20 minutes

  1. Watch the video and make notes of what figures of speech that are being used.

  2. Prepare to share your answers in class.

List of figures of speech:

  • Alliteration - Repetition of consonants in adjacent words.

  • Anaphora - Repetition of a phrase at the beginning of paragraphs.

  • Analogy - Compare two objects or ideas.

  • Antithesis - Contrasting two different or opposing objects or ideas.

  • Antimetabole - Repeating phrases but in the reverse order. A-B-B-A.

  • Asyndeton - Deliberately remove conjunctions.

  • Epistrophe - Repetition of the last words or phrase in a sentence.

  • Epizeuxis - Immediate repetition of the final word in a sentence.

  • Euphemism - Changing rude expressions into agreeable/ softer alternatives.

  • Hyperbole - Exaggerate a statement.

  • Metaphor - Comparison without like or as. One object is the other.

  • Simile - Compare two objects or ideas using like or as.

Advanced exercise

Rhetorical analysis - finding the details

Time for the exercise: 20 minutes


  1. Listen to Arnold Schwarzenegger's message, and then,

  2. Draw a rhetorical triangle with the three rhetorical appeals (ethos, pathos and logos).

  3. What is the primary rhetorical appeal that he uses?

    • Ethos = Credibility to the speaker and knowing the topic, authority

    • Pathos = Speaking to the audience’s emotions, beliefs, values

    • Logos = Using logical proof and reasoning, such as evidence or data

  4. Draw a circle around the appeal which you think Arnold draws his rhetorical power from.

  5. What figures of speech is he using? Give examples.

  6. Write an argument as support to your claim. Share in class.

Exit ticket

"Today, I learned ..."

Homework